TORCH 5 IN 1 TEST

$84.95

PRODUCT INFORMATION

Rapid combination test for toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, rubella, and herpes types 1 and 2.


The DiagLineTM One Step Torch 5 in 1 Panel is a rapid test  IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (TOXO), Cytomegalo-
virus (CMV), Rubella Virus (RV), and Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in human blood.  A drop of blood is obtained by using the thumb prick device and the dropper provided to place the blood sample into the well of the cassette.

Introduction
The conception of the TORCH infections was to group five infections, including Toxoplasmosis (TOXO),Rubella Virus (RV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) , Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). Infections acquired in utero or during the birth process are a significant cause of fetal and neonatal mortality and an important contributor to early and later childhood morbidity. Thus, routine screening of pregnant women at the first prenatal visit for TORCH titers is commonplace in many parts of the world.

SUMMARY AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE for TOXO:
T. gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution (1,2).  Serological data indicate that approximately 30% of the population of most industrialized nations is chronically infected with the organism (3). When a seronegative woman become infected T. gondii during pregnancy, the organism is often transmitted across the placenta to the fetus (1,4). The severity of infection in the fetus varies with the trimester during which the infection was acquired. Infection during the trimester may lead to spontaneous abortion, stillbirth or overt disease in the neonate. Approximately 75% of congenitally infected newborns are symptomatic. However, nearly all children born with subclinical toxoplasmosis will develop adverse ocular or neurologic sequelae later in life (4,7). Approximately 80-85% develops chorioretinitis and some may also experience blindness or mental retardation. A variety of serologic tests for antibodies to T. gondii have been used as an aid in diagnosis of acute infection and to assess previous exposure to the organism. The more widely used test include the Sabin-Feldman dye test, direct agglutination, indirect hemagglutination, latex agglutination, indirect immunofluorenscence, and ELISA.

SUMMARY AND EXPLANATION OF THE TEST for CMV:

Cytomegalovirus is a herpes virus and a leading biological factor causing congenital abnormalities and complications among those who receive massive blood transfusions and immunosuppressive therapy. About half of pregnant women who contract a primary infection spread the disease to their fetus. When acquired inutero, the infection may cause mental retardation, blindness, and/or deafness.  Serological tests for detecting the presence of antibody to CMV can provide valuable information regarding the history of previous infection, diagnosis of active or recent infection, as well as in screening blood for transfusions in newborns and immunocompromised recipients.

SUMMARY AND EXPLANATION OF THE TEST for Rubella Virus (RV): 

Rubella is a herpes virus. Generally rubella is considered a mild adolescence disease.  However a maternal infection could be transmitted through the placenta to the fetus, causing congenital rubella. Congenital rubella may result in chronic cardiac disease, growth retardation, hepatosplenomegaly, malformations and other severe anomalies. Children born asymptomatic may develop these abnormalities later in life.   To reduce risk of such severe complications, accurate serological methods must be performed to determine the serologic status of childbearing aged women. The presence of rubella specific IgG in the bloodstream attests immunity to rubella. A woman tested to be non-immune can be educated on the availability of vaccination. An increase in rubella IgG denotes an acute infection and differentiates rubella from other exanthematous diseases.  Expecting women with current rubella infection should be counseled on the consequences
of congenital infection.

SUMMARY AND EXPLANATION OF THE TEST for HSV-1 and HSV-2:
HSV-1 is usually associated with infection in the oropharyngeal area and eyes while HSV-2 causes mostly gennital and neonatal infections (1,2) however, the tissue specificity is not absolute (3). HSV-2 can be isolated occasionally from the oropharynx and 5-10% of primary genital infections may be caused by HSV-1. Infants infected with HSV appear normal at birth but almost invariably develop symptoms during the newborn period(1,4,5). Neonatal HSV infection may remain localized or become disseminated. Localized infection may in volve one or a combination of sites. These are skin, eyes, mouth or central nervous system. Disseminated infection is manifested by pneumonitis, hepatitis, dissembinated intravascular coagulopathy and encephalitis. Of the infants with neonatal HSV, about one half
of the serviving infants will develop severe neurological or ocular sequelae.  A number of serological procedures have been developed to detect antibodies to HSV.
These include complement fixation, indirect immunoflorescent antibody, plaque neutralization, and ELISA (2,4,6). Antibody of the IgM class is produced during the first 2-3 weeks of infection with HSV and exists only transiently in most patients. Serologic procedures which measure the presence of IgM antibodies help discriminate between primary and recurrent infections since IgM antibodies is rarely found in recurrent infections. 


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  • 4998 Units in Stock


This product was added to our catalog on Wednesday 07 May, 2014.

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